Galacturonan / Pectin

Structural description

Pectic polysaccharides are a major part of the plant cell wall. They form a network independent from the hemicellulose/cellulose network and influence cell wall properties such as porosity or tensile strength. Pectins consist of three major structural elements: galacturonan, which is a linear chain of α(1-4)-linked D-galacturonic acids, rhamnogalacturonan I, which consists of a back bone of altering α-1,4-linked galacturonic acid and α(1-2)-linked rhamnose units and the complex rhamnogalacturonan II (RG II). RG II is a well-defined structural element of pectin. It is of low molecular weight. Its 12 different sugars are connected via 20 different linkages. Attached to a backbone of 8–10 galacturonic acid residues rhamnogalacturonan II contains four side chains with rare and therefore diagnostic sugars: 2-O-methyl fucose, 2-O-methyl xylose, apiose, 3-C-carboxy-5-deoxy-L-xylose (aceric acid), 3-deoxy-D-lyxo-2-heptulosaric acid (DHA), and 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (KDO).

Apiogalacturonans are present in the walls of some aquatic monocots including Lemna minor and Zostera marina. The backbone is mainly made of α(1-4) linked D-galacturonic acid substituted with single β-D-Apiose and β-D-Apiose-(1-5)-β-D-Apiose side chains at C2/C3 position. In the ramified region of the macromolecule, arabinose, galactose, xylose and O-Me-Xylose are possible minor components of side chains.

Activities and Uses

The main use for galacturonan (pectin) is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabilizer in food. They have shown prebiotic activities as dietary fibers, anti-angiogenic and immunomodulatory activities.

Oligogalacturonides (OGA) prepared by homogalacturonan hydrolysis (either by chemical or enzymatic):

  • Induce reponse involved in plant defenses (B.L. Ridley et al., 2001. Phytochem., 57; 929–967)
  • Have bifidogenic, prebiotic properties, inhibit the adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells, the initial and crucial stage of infection. (DP2-DP7)
  • Stimulate the apoptosis of colon cancer cells
  • Might implicate an additional mechanism of immunologic protection provided by human milk of the infants (Vos, A. P., Stahl, B., et al. 2007, Pediatric Allergy and Immuno., 18, 304-312)

Apiogalacturonan are used as ingredient intended for skin care.

Galacturonan / Pectin

Galacturonan oligosaccharides DP4 - 10 mg

trait
GAT124

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α(1-4) linked D-galacturonate oligosaccharides DP4 finely separated prepared by galacturonate polysaccharide hydrolysis. Sodium salt.
Galacturonan / Pectin

Galacturonan oligosaccharides DP3 - 10 mg

trait
GAT123

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α(1-4) linked D-galacturonate oligosaccharides DP3 finely separated prepared by galacturonate polysaccharide hydrolysis. Sodium salt.
Galacturonan / Pectin

Galacturonan oligosaccharides DP2 - 10 mg

trait
GAT122

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α(1-4) linked D-galacturonate oligosaccharides DP2 finely separated prepared by galacturonate polysaccharide hydrolysis. Sodium salt.
Galacturonan / Pectin

Galacturonan oligosaccharide mixture DP10-DP15

trait
GAT114

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α(1-4) linked D-galacturonate oligosaccharides with mixed average DP10 to DP15 prepared by galacturonate polysaccharide hydrolysis. Sodium salt.
HPAEC>99% galacturonic acid
Galacturonan / Pectin

Galacturonate polysaccharides LM from apple (sodium salt) - 1 g

Galacturonate polysaccharides LM from apple (sodium salt) - 1 g
trait
GAT100

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Low methylated α(1-4) linked D-galacturonate extracted and purified from apple pectins. Sodium salt.
Degree of esterification (DE)<5%. [25990-10-7]
Galacturonan / Pectin

Galacturonan polysaccharides HM from apple (sodium salt) - 1 g

Galacturonan polysaccharides HM from apple (sodium salt) - 1 g
trait
GAT101

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High methylated α(1-4) linked D-galacturonate extracted and purified from apple pectins.
Degree of esterification (DE)>70%. [9000-69-5]
Galacturonan / Pectin

Galacturonate polysaccharides LM from citrus (sodium salt) - 1 g

Galacturonate polysaccharides LM from citrus (sodium salt) - 1 g
trait
GAT102

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Low methylated α(1-4) linked D-galacturonate extracted and purified from apple pectins. Sodium salt.
Degree of esterification (DE)<5%. [9049-37-0]
Galacturonan / Pectin

Galacturonan polysaccharides HM from Citrus (sodium salt) - 1 g

Galacturonan polysaccharides HM from Citrus (sodium salt) - 1 g
trait
GAT103

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High methylated α(1-4) linked D-galacturonate extracted and purified from citrus pectins. Sodium salt.
Degree of esterification (DE)>65%. [9046-40-6]
Galacturonan / Pectin

Galacturonan oligosaccharides blocks (OGAs)

Galacturonan oligosaccharides blocks (OGAs)
trait
GAT110

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α(1-4) linked D-galacturonate oligosaccharides with mixed DP prepared by low methylated galacturonate polysaccharide hydrolysis. Sodium salt.
Average observed DP range : 25-50
Galacturonan / Pectin

Galacturonan oligosaccharides Mixture DP3/DP4 - 10 mg

trait
GAT111

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α(1-4) linked D-galacturonate oligosaccharides with mixed DP3/DP4 prepared by galacturonate polysaccharide hydrolysis. Sodium salt.
HPAEC>99% galacturonic acid
Galacturonan / Pectin

Galacturonan oligosaccharides Mixture DP7/DP8 - 10 mg

Galacturonan oligosaccharides Mixture DP7/DP8 - 10 mg
trait
GAT112

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α(1-4) linked D-galacturonate oligosaccharides with mixed DP7/DP8 prepared by galacturonate polysaccharide hydrolysis. Sodium salt.
HPAEC>99% galacturonic acid
Apiogalacturonan

Apiogalacturonan polysaccharide - 10 mg

Apiogalacturonan polysaccharide - 10 mg
trait
GAT200

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Apiogalacturonan polysaccharide is extracted and purified from Zostera marina.
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